White Papers

CFARS Site Suitability Initiative: An Open Source Approach to Evaluate the Performance of Remote Sensing Device (RSD) Turbulence Intensity Measurements & Accelerate Industry Adoption of RSDs for Turbine Suitability Assessment

In this white paper, the results from the Consortium for Advancing Remote Sensing’s (CFARS) Site Suitability Subgroup’s first benchmarking analysis of unadjusted RSD to cup anemometer turbulence intensity (TI) and reference cup-to-redundant cup measurement differences are presented. Eight organizations participated in the benchmarking activity, contributing a total of 35 datasets.

This document introduces the Subgroup’s forthcoming analysis, examining the performance of adjusted RSD TI measurements compared to cup anemometry. This will be the industry’s first open source tool for comparing the performance of disparate RSD TI measurements and cup anemometry, the TI Adjustment Comparison Tool (TACT). TACT incorporates more than 15 adjustment techniques. Preliminary results from this benchmarking activity using TACT will be released to the industry in the Spring 2022 and summarized in detail in a forthcoming peer-reviewed article.

Finally, to ensure the delivery of commercial value to open source science and tools generated in the Subgroup, a best practice collaboration framework to connect RSD TI benchmarking activities with RSD TI acceptance decision-making for site suitability assessment is introduced herein. The CFARS best practice framework provides a platform that enables data-driven decisions, on acceptable loads bias thresholds in a commercial setting. The framework encourages industry stakeholders to collaborate to further refine TACT, leverage the tool to advance industry understanding of the sensitivity of turbine fatigue load models to varying TI measurements and therefore de-risks the use of adjusted RSD measurements in site suitability assessment.

Alexandra St. Pé (RWE Renewables), Ellie Weyer (UL), Alexandra E. Arntsen (NRG Systems), Iain Campbell (RES), Nikhil Kondabala (APEX), Marcel Mibus (APEX), Philippe Pontbriand (TransAlta), Andrew Black (Vaisala), Zach Parker (Nordex), Nigel Swytink-Binnema (Nergica), Nicolas Jolin (Nergica), Barrett T. Goudeau (NRG Systems), René Meklenborg Miltersen Slot (EMD), Lasse Svenningsen (EMD), Joseph C. Y. Lee (NREL), Mithu Debnath (NREL), Scott Wylie (ZX Lidars), Dale Apgar (GE), Thomas Fric (GE), Dan Michaud (GE), Elizabeth Smith (RES), Paul Mazoyer (Leosphere), Mackenzie Tocco (Avangrid), Fabrice Guillemin (IFPEN), Krystina Teoh (EDP)


Survey of Correction Techniques for Remote Sensing Devices in Complex Flow

As part of its mission to reduce the uncertainty of preconstruction wind resource estimates, the Consortium for the Advancement for Remote Sensing (CFARS) is engaged in a survey of correction techniques for remote wind sensing devices in complex terrain.

This webinar presented and compared correction techniques from several suppliers (Leosphere, WindSim, Meteodyn) when applied to data collected by the most prominent sensing devices (Triton, WindCube, ZX). All techniques show similar results: uncorrected RSD wind speeds differ from cup measurement by 2%-5% and corrected data are all within ±1%. This study also examines anemometer biases due to flow inclination. The webinar goes beyond the CFARS presentation to AWEA 2020, providing further detail on the datasets, terrain classification and methods used to compare mast and lidars.

Andrew Black (Vaisala), Scott Wylie (ZXLidars), Paul Mazoyer (Leosphere)


Power Performance Testing Using Ground Based Lidar

As markets for wind energy become increasingly competitive, performance and testing is more important than ever. However, with hub heights ever increasing, testing is becoming increasingly expensive. The latest IEC testing standard allows for the use of lidar but continues to require on-site met towers.

In this CFARS Power Curve subgroup, round-table style webinar, experts will explore stand-alone lidar; leveraging off-site met towers for calibration and reducing the need for on-site met towers.

Dan Bernadett (UL), Ellie Weyer (UL), Luke Simmons (DNV), Ioannis Antoniou (SGRE), Tom Fric (GE), Alex Pantouris (NextEra) Hong Liu (Engie)

Biannual Survey

2021 (upcoming)

More information coming soon…


Wind Industry Stakeholder Survey

Jeff Fine (RES), John Wang (Wood), Matthew Meyer (E.On)

Key Findings:

  • Confidence in RSD significantly increased in the last 5 years
  • Still a large spread in perception RSD applicability for site suitability and resource assessment
  • Stand alone LiDAR (without mast) still perceived as the golden standard
  • Key area of focus for science tract: (1) TI measurement from RS (2) Complex flow characterization and correction